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3) Electromagnetic Propulsion

This project concerns electromagnetic propulsion but of the non-photon gun variety, where the power cost is some 300MW just to get a force of 1 Newton. I believe using the experimentally and theoretically well-founded "static electromagnetic angular momentum effect", as exemplified in the Feynman Disk Paradox, allows us to push against the ubiquitous and massive mass-energy of the zero-point/ground state of the electromagnetic field. It's a bit like having a planet to push against where-ever you are and whatever speed you are doing, even in the vacuum of space.

I believe, in the first paper below, I have found the justifying mechanism for the dumping of angular momentum to the ground state of the EM field that was bugging me for a decade and a half. Ironically, despite what Graham and Lahoz say (quote below), the effect is routed in Quantum Electrodynamics (QED).

The next paper justifies that field ground state is real (since we intent to use it) and not just a numerically massive mathematical artefact of Quantum Field Theories. When it is added into the Einstein Field Equations (via the Cosmological Constant, "Einstein's biggest blunder") at the third order, a neat cancelling occurs. In fact, the paper argues that the difference in magnitude between it and the Cosmological Constant vacuum energy should be a billion times higher (then some 10129 bigger instead of "just" 10120) as extra degrees of freedom or dimensions maybe present on the Planck scale, not to mention that "running constants" or even G itself might be bigger at those scales. Maybe Astronomy/Cosmology is hinting to particle physics that vacuum energy needs to be bigger, even though it is calculated at some 10111J/m^3 at present (cosmological vacuum is only some 10-9J/m^3) ? Maybe this need for a greater vacuum energy is hinting that there may be some thing to String Theory, whose critics deny that there is any experimental proof.

A third new paper (completed before the 2nd) does a momenergy analysis and proves that some of the rest-mass of the craft is converted into kinetic energy of the remaining rest-mass of the craft and that the kinetic energy and momentum of the craft is dumped to the zero-point. This is not in abeyance of the 1st Law. However, although the 1st law is not violated, if the device is correct, then that momenergy becomes "trapped" in the zero-point because the zeropoint is homogeneous and invariant at any speed - there would be no way to build a device (as far as I know) that could "re-tap" it. This is hinting at a new kind of 2nd law... This has lead to a new fourth paper.

Finally, to those who are not comfortable with the idea of propellant-less propulsion, seeing ideas of pushing against something obviously as tenuous as an ether as potty, let's remember that the fundamental constituents of matter: the leptons and the force force carriers between them (the photons), are essentially point-like particles (on the Planck scale of size ~10-33m) - so that stuff coming out the exhaust of rockets and jet engines... matter... is mostly empty space anyway!

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Paper 1    On EM propulsion with full mechanism for "dumping" momentum.

Paper 2    WORK IN PROGRESS Justifying QFT vacuum to the Cosmological Constant and the 10120 orders of magnitude problem.

Paper 3    This paper does a momenergy analysis to prove that rest-energy of the craft is always dumped to zero-point when the craft accelerates. A more detailed look is made of the electrical work too.

Paper 4    NEW PAPER. The considerations of paper 1 and 3 leads to the conclusion that a more insidious form of the 2nd Law exists. We believe that KE can be imparted to the zero-point of the harmonic oscillators. Interaction between them then thermalises (randomises) that KE over multiple oscillators. Since the overlying physics of the E and B fields is not affected by the movement of the oscillator itself, there is no way to recover this KE. Hence no Maxwell Demon type process could work (it does work with thermalised matter - 1st Project).

This paper will be revised to make some of the assertions more rigorous:- 1) the assertions that the oscillators themselves can move, 2) that the overlying physics of E and B fields is oblivious to that movement, 3) that the KE of movement (not the excitation of the oscillator) can couple to other oscillators by zero-point fluctuations (note this in the low energy limit is a scattering problem for QHO. Production of real photons is not the issue, as it can't explain the momentum balance if the device is correct. E/c is not enough, especially since the craft takes practically all the KE (Mv = mV, where the latter is the craft)).

Paper 5    This paper, to be written, will cover the likely experimental manifestation of this project. It may be written later in the year (2020).


Section 17-4 Feynman Lectures Vol. 2   The disk paradox

Section 27 Feynman Lectures Vol. 2       Advanced treatment of classical EM field energy and momentum


Here's what I wrote on the old version of this webpage (2003-2006)...

What is needed is a justification that momentum can be dumped to the vacuum. The 'induction fields' are odd things: there is a static circulation of electromagnetic energy - no doubt. The fact that the flow of energy given by the Poynting vector doesn't radiate in space means that it is not an electromagnetic wave phenomena. To quote Graham and Lahoz, "Observation of static electromagnetic angular momentum in vacuo", Nature Vol. 285, 154 (1980):

"It is remarkable that no known 'particle' can be identified as the agent of the observed electromagnetic angular momentum in the exchange with the mechanical detector. However, this does not imply that a new entity has to be introduced, because the concept of energy-momentum carried by macroscopic quasi-static (italics mine) electromagnetic field is already contained in Maxwell's equations. According to these, and as directly implied by our experimental result, permanent magnets and electrets can be used to build a flywheel of electromagnetic energy steadily flowing in circles in the vacuum gap of a capacitor as if Maxwell's medium were endowed with a property corresponding to super-fluidity (italics mine). The certainly new insight is that the quasi-static Maxwell's field is not merely an unobservable medium of interaction between matter and matter: it has in fact the mechanical properties postulated by Maxwell, in contradistinction to any 'action at a distance' theory."

So we have a problem, the spatially static flow of energy is not a wave phenomena and probably cannot be described by a photon flux. In the limit of zero frequency all electromagnetic phenomena become classical.


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