This project concerns electromagnetic propulsion but of the non-photon
gun variety, where the power cost is some 300MW just to get a force of 1 Newton.
I believe using the experimentally and theoretically well-founded "static
electromagnetic angular momentum effect", as exemplified in the Feynman Disk
Paradox, allows us to push against the ubiquitous and massive mass-energy of the
zero-point/ground state of the electromagnetic field. It's a bit like having a
planet to push against where-ever you are and whatever speed you are doing, even
in the vacuum of space.
I believe, in the first paper below, I have found the justifying mechanism for the dumping of angular
momentum to the ground state of the EM field that was bugging me for a decade
and a half. Ironically, despite what Graham and Lahoz say (quote below), the
effect is routed in Quantum Electrodynamics (QED).
The next paper justifies that field ground state is real (since we intent to
use it) and not just a numerically massive mathematical artefact of Quantum
Field Theories. When it is added into the Einstein Field Equations (via the
Cosmological Constant, "Einstein's
biggest blunder") at the third order, a neat cancelling occurs. In fact, the
paper argues that the difference in magnitude between it and the Cosmological
Constant vacuum energy should be a billion times higher (then some 10129
bigger instead of "just" 10120) as extra degrees of freedom or
dimensions maybe present on the Planck scale, not to mention that "running
constants" or even G itself might be bigger at those scales. Maybe
Astronomy/Cosmology is hinting to particle physics that vacuum energy needs to
be bigger, even though it is calculated at some 10111J/m^3 at present
(cosmological vacuum is only some 10-9J/m^3) ? Maybe this need for a
greater vacuum energy is hinting that there may be some thing to String Theory,
whose critics deny that there is any experimental proof.
A third new paper (completed before the
2nd) does a momenergy analysis and proves that some of the rest-mass of the
craft is converted into kinetic energy of the remaining rest-mass of the craft
and that the kinetic energy and momentum of the craft is dumped to the
zero-point. This is not in abeyance of the 1st Law. However, although the 1st
law is not violated, if the device is correct, then that momenergy becomes
"trapped" in the zero-point because the zeropoint is homogeneous and invariant
at any speed - there would be no way to build a device (as far as I know) that
could "re-tap" it. This is hinting at a new kind of 2nd law... This
has lead to a new fourth paper.
Finally, to those who are not comfortable with the idea of propellant-less
propulsion, seeing ideas of pushing against something obviously as
tenuous as an ether as potty, let's remember that the fundamental
constituents of matter: the leptons and the force force carriers between them
(the photons), are essentially point-like particles (on the Planck scale of size
~10-33m) - so that stuff coming out the exhaust of rockets and jet
engines... matter... is mostly empty space anyway!
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Paper 1 On EM propulsion with full mechanism for
WORK IN PROGRESS Justifying QFT vacuum to the Cosmological
Constant and the 10120 orders of magnitude problem.
This paper does a momenergy analysis to prove that rest-energy of the craft is
always dumped to zero-point when the craft accelerates. A more detailed look is
made of the electrical work too.
4 NEW PAPER. The
considerations of paper 1 and 3 leads to the conclusion that a more insidious
form of the 2nd Law exists. We believe that KE can be imparted to the zero-point of the harmonic
oscillators. Interaction between them then thermalises (randomises) that KE over
multiple oscillators. Since the overlying physics of the E and B fields is not
affected by the movement of the oscillator itself, there is no way to recover
this KE. Hence no Maxwell Demon type process could work (it does work with thermalised
matter - 1st
This paper will be revised to make some of the assertions more rigorous:- 1) the
assertions that the oscillators themselves can move, 2) that the overlying physics
of E and B fields is oblivious to that movement, 3) that the KE of movement (not
the excitation of the oscillator) can couple to other oscillators by zero-point
fluctuations (note this in the low energy limit is a scattering problem for QHO.
Production of real photons is not the issue, as it can't explain the momentum
balance if the device is correct. E/c is not enough, especially since the craft
takes practically all the KE (Mv = mV, where the latter is the craft)).
Paper 5 This paper, to be written, will cover the likely
experimental manifestation of this project. It may be written later in the year
Feynman Lectures Vol. 2 The disk paradox
Feynman Lectures Vol. 2 Advanced
treatment of classical EM field energy and momentum
Here's what I wrote on the old version of this webpage (2003-2006)...
What is needed is a justification that momentum can be dumped to the vacuum.
The 'induction fields' are odd things: there is a static circulation of
electromagnetic energy - no doubt. The fact that the flow of energy given by the
Poynting vector doesn't radiate in space means that it is not an electromagnetic
wave phenomena. To quote Graham and Lahoz, "Observation of static
electromagnetic angular momentum in vacuo", Nature Vol. 285, 154 (1980):
"It is remarkable that no known 'particle' can be identified as the agent of
the observed electromagnetic angular momentum in the exchange with the
mechanical detector. However, this does not imply that a new entity has to be
introduced, because the concept of energy-momentum carried by macroscopic
quasi-static (italics mine) electromagnetic field is already contained in
Maxwell's equations. According to these, and as directly implied by our
experimental result, permanent magnets and electrets can be used to build a
flywheel of electromagnetic energy steadily flowing in circles in the vacuum gap
of a capacitor as if Maxwell's medium were endowed with a property corresponding
to super-fluidity (italics mine). The certainly new insight is that the
quasi-static Maxwell's field is not merely an unobservable medium of interaction
between matter and matter: it has in fact the mechanical properties postulated
by Maxwell, in contradistinction to any 'action at a distance' theory."
So we have a problem, the spatially static flow of energy is not a wave
phenomena and probably cannot be described by a photon flux. In the limit of
zero frequency all electromagnetic phenomena become classical.